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The hottest place in the universe

The hottest object in the solar system is the Sun. But its surface temperature is 5500 degrees Celsius.

Thermonuclear explosion. The temperature at the core of a star during fusion reactions, such as hydrogen burning in the sun, is about 15 million degrees Celsius.

The hottest place in the universe is also not a star or the core of the Earth, but, according to Daniel Palumbo of Harvard University, supermassive black holes are at the centers of almost all galaxies. These black holes have an enormous mass, millions and billions of times greater than the mass of the Sun, and their gravity is incredibly strong.

Matter entering the vicinity of these black holes begins to rotate in the accretion disks around them. In the process, the matter collides and rubs against each other, which leads to a huge increase in temperature – it can reach trillions of degrees Celsius. When a black hole ejects some of this matter into space in the form of a relativistic jet, the temperature rises even more.

The hottest place in the universe is currently considered to be quasar 3C273, located at a distance of 2.4 billion light-years from us. Quasars are ultraluminous phenomena associated with the presence of supermassive black holes and their surrounding accretion disks. The temperature at the center of this quasar is thought to be around 10 trillion degrees Celsius, but the accuracy of this estimate still needs to be clarified.

In addition, along with black holes, the hottest places in space can be areas where space disasters occur. For example, the collision of two neutron stars, which arises after the death of massive stars, can lead to the heating of matter to a temperature of 800 billion degrees Celsius. A similar temperature could be generated when a small black hole collides with a neutron star, creating temporarily the hottest places in the universe.

Scientists get data on the temperature of the environment around black holes or the temperature after cosmic collisions by studying ordinary light, radio waves, and X-ray light emitted during certain events.

Therefore, it is difficult to speak about the accuracy of the obtained data. Scientists believe that in the foreseeable future, with new technologies, they will not only be able to determine the temperature of the 3C273 quasar but may also find an even hotter place in the universe.

In the meantime, the hottest confirmed place in the universe is on the surface of the Earth.

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) set a temperature record. In this largest particle accelerator on Earth, scientists can create extremely high temperatures. Physicists at CERN have managed to obtain matter heated to 5.5 trillion degrees (350,000 times hotter than the Sun). The record was born when lead ions collided at a speed close to the speed of light.

However, most scientists agree that the temperature of the universe at the time of its birth reached 1,000 trillion degrees Celsius. This temperature was maintained only a fraction of a second after the explosion. This is about 200 times higher than the temperatures obtained in the Large Hadron Collider experiment.

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